The Digital Afterlife of Ti-Ameny-Net

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    "The Digital Afterlife of Ti-Ameny-Net."

    Created by Nils P. Niemeier, '13, University of Richmond, in association with the University of Richmond Digital Scholarship Lab.


    A Note on the Hieroglyphics on the Coffin of Ti Ameny Net:

    The coffin inscriptions were read first by James Henry Breasted, renowned Egyptologist, in the 1890s. He transliterated the name of the deceased as ‘Ti Ameny Net.’ Since then, several other readings have been proposed, including ‘Djai Ameni Niwet,’ ‘Tchai-Ameni-Niwet,’ and ‘Pa-Di-Ameni-Niwet.’ The most recent translation, made in 2013 by Patrick C. Salland (’06, University of Richmond; PhD candidate in Egyptology at the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University), identifies her as ‘Tcha-Di-Ameny-Niwet.’ Because she has been known for more than 100 years as ‘Ti Ameny Net,’ we continue to use Breasted’s original identification, with the understanding that it is not exactly what she would have been called in antiquity.

    This digital exhibit contains Salland's full translation of the hieroglyphic text, along with some explanatory notes.  He has provided the following glossary for certain titles and epithets found in the coffin inscriptions:

    Khenty-Imentyw:  Originally translated as “Foremost of the Westerners” and believed to be an epithet of Osiris is now known to have been the name of an early funerary god, the original god of Abydos.  Therefore Osiris Khenty-Imentyw is a  composite deity in much the same manner as Amun-Ra.

    Possessor of Imahw:  Often originally translated as “the transformed spirit” or “the revered one” Imahw is understood to be an untranslatable title bestowed upon the honored dead.  The term indicates a person who has been excepted into the afterlife.

    True of Voice: A deceased person who has been proven by the tribunal of gods to be truthful when listing the negative confessions during the weighing of the heart, thus a person who has person who has passed this particular step in reaching the afterlife.  Often translated in the past as “the justified.”

    The one in the wt: A title of Anubis.  Originally translated as “the one in the bandages,” the “wt” is now understood to be a sacred location of some sort although the exact nature still is not understood. 

    For Further Reading:

    Adams, C.V.A. 1990. “An Investigation into the Mummies Presented to H.R.H. The Prince of Wales in 1869.” Discussions in Egyptology 18:5-19.

    Nail, N. H. “The Coffins and Mummies Presented to Edward Prince of Wales during his 1869 Egyptian Tour Revisited.” Discussions in Egyptology 48: 67-79.

    Rhodes, K. 2007. “Saving the Mummy.” University of Richmond Alumni Magazine Spring 2007:20-23.

    Ward, P. L. 2003. “A 19th Century Luxury Tour. The Prince and Princess of Wales in Egypt, 1869.” KMT. A Modern Journal of Ancient Egypt 14.1:66-75.



    This digital exhibit is based on “Ti Ameny Net: An Ancient Mummy, an Egyptian Woman, and Modern Science” (Lora Robins Gallery for Design from Nature, University of Richmond, 24 February – 16 November 2012), curated by Caroline Cobert (’12, University of Richmond), Elizabeth Schlatter (Deputy Director, University of Richmond Museums), and Elizabeth Baughan (Associate Professor of Classics and Archaeology, University of Richmond). Research, curatorial, and editorial assistance was provided by: Ann Fulcher (’83, University of Richmond; Professor and Chair, Department of Radiology, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center); Joshua Harker (forensic and digital artist); April Hill (Clarence E. Denoon Professor of Science, University of Richmond); Kevin Hoover (Assistant Professor of Radiology, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center); Matthew Houle (Curator of Museum Collections, University of Richmond Museums); David Howell (translator); Ghislaine Mayer (Assistant Professor of Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center); Patrick Salland (’06, University of Richmond; PhD candidate, Institute of Fine Arts, New York University); and Chris Wilkins (Central Virginia Archaeological Conservation). Photos by Taylor Dabney and Geep Schurman.